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Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

Old 04-09-2013, 01:37 PM
  #8226
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Republic Rainbow?
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Old 04-09-2013, 01:53 PM
  #8227
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YF-12?
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Old 04-09-2013, 02:09 PM
  #8228
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XB 70?
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Old 04-09-2013, 03:01 PM
  #8229
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Martin-Baker MB 5?
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Old 04-09-2013, 03:48 PM
  #8230
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F8f
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Old 04-09-2013, 04:06 PM
  #8231
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Japanese Reppu?
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Old 04-09-2013, 05:52 PM
  #8232
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Quote:
ORIGINAL: racer639

Republic Rainbow?

And we have a winner!!! Way to go, racer639! Well done. You have the floor and we await your question. In a day when most single engine fighters were very hard pressed to hit anywhere near 450 MPH in level flight, the Republic XF-12 Rainbow could cruise at over 400 MPH and hit 465 MPH whenever it wanted. The fastest four engine piston powered aircraft ever built, it was the absolute epitome of the art when it first flew in 1946. The Rainbow remains as a shining example of what can be achieved in aircraft design. Many people think it was probably the best example of a "perfect" aircraft ever built. And over to you, racer 639. Thanks; Ernie P.


Question: What warbird do I describe?

Clues:

(1) It was probably the absolute best of its type ever built.

(2) Unfortunately, its day was over before it ever reached production.

(3) It was the epitome of “high speed, low drag”.

(4) The proposal for its development came about because a need was forseen for an aircraft that could fly faster, farther and higher than any existing aircraft.

(5) This aircraft met, in fact exceeded, all of the design requirements.

(6) Considered to be one of the most beautiful aircraft of all time.

(7) Low drag was a key, in fact critical, factor in its design.

(8) It featured new and innovative methods of engine cooling, which not only reduced drag, but increased thrust

(9) By the time the aircraft first flew, the war was over.

(10) A rare decision was made during the design phase that there would be no compromise in maintaining the designed aerodynamic comfiguration. That was achieved.

(11) Extensive wind tunnel testing was conducted.

(12) Its development was suggested by the son of a prominent political figure.

(13) All of the air used to cool the engines and all the associated engine accessories was drawn from the front of the wings.

(14) The design features to allow it to perform its reconnaissance mission were revolutionary. It was, at the time, the most capable reconnaissance platform in the world.

(15) The photo intelligence collected by the aircraft were immediately available to the analysts, with no delay for processing.

(16) The engine nacelles were, by themselves, longer than a large, contemporary fighter aircraft.

(17) By ducting the engine exhaust to the rear, the design increased the equivalent horsepower by over 200 horsepower per engine.

(18) This aircraft cruised at a speed faster than most contemporary fighters could reach.

(19) Its top speed could only be reached by a very few fighter aircraft.

(20) This aircraft set a new record for a transcontinental speed run. In fact, it shattered the existing record by a good margin.

(21) The reason it was never placed into production was many surplus aircraft were available which could be pressed into service to perform the same mission, if not so well. And within a few years, even more capable jet aircraft could be designed and flown.

Answer: The Republic XF-12 Rainbow


The Republic XF-12 Rainbow was an American four-engine, all-metal prototype reconnaissance aircraft designed by the Republic Aviation Company in the late 1940s. Like most large aircraft of the era, it used radial engines—in this case, the Pratt & Whitney R-4360 "Wasp Major." The aircraft was designed with maximum aerodynamic efficiency in mind. The XF-12 was referred to as an aircraft that was "flying on all fours" meaning: four engines, 400 mph cruise, 4,000 mile range, at 40,000 feet.[1]Although highly innovative, the postwar XF-12 Rainbow was fated to compete against more modern jet engine technology and was not to enter production.



The original proposal for the aircraft, delivered in late 1943, came from the USAAC Air Technical Service Command, stationed at Wright Field. The proposal was for a reconnaissance aircraft which included a requirement for speed (400 mph), ceiling (40,000 ft) and range (4,000 nm). Its primary objective was for high-speed overflights of the Japanese homeland and key enemy installations. During World War II, due to the extended range requirements of operating in the Pacific, existing fighters and bombers were being used for missions for which they were never intended. The need existed for an aircraft specifically designed for the photo-reconnaissance mission. The aircraft required adequate speed, range and altitude capabilities for its missions to be successful.

In August 1943, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's son, Colonel Elliot Roosevelt, commander of the F-5 (modified P-38) "recon" unit, recommended the acquisition of a dedicated high-performance photo reconnaissance aircraft, capable of providing pre-strike target acquisition and photo interpretation. Followed by additional overflights to provide post-strike analysis of their subsequent destruction, this would give commanders the ability to make pivotal strategic decisions and set up subsequent raids. The XF-12 was Republic Aviation's attempt to meet those goals. Its primary competition during this time was the Hughes XF-11. Both were introduced at the same time, and both were powered by the new P&W R-4360. The XF-12's first flight was made on 4 February 1946. During the XF-12's subsequent flight testing and development period, it demonstrated the capability of operating at 45,000 ft, at a speed of 470 mph, over a range of 4,500 miles so it met and exceeded the design goals for which it had been designed. Neither the XF-11 or the XF-12 was purchased in any quantity by the U.S. Army Air Forces (two each), as their need evaporated after hostilities ended in World War II.

Low drag was a primary consideration throughout the design of the XF-12. Many of its features were taken directly from Republic’s considerable experience with fighter plane design. In an extremely rare case of design direction, absolutely no compromise with aerodynamics was made in the shape of its fuselage. Aviation Week was quoted as saying "the sharp nose and cylindrical cigar shape of the XF-12 fulfills a designer's dream of a no compromise design with aerodynamic considerations."

To fulfill its reconnaissance role, the XF-12 contained three separate photographic compartments aft of the wing. One vertical, one split vertical, and one trimetrogon each using a six inch Fairchild K-17 camera. For night reconnaissance missions, the XF-12 had a large hold in the belly which accommodated 18 high-intensity photo-flash bombs; these were ejected over the target area. All of the bays were equipped with electrically operated, inward retracting doors (again designed for maximum aerodynamic cleanliness). The camera lenses were electrically heated to eliminate distortion. All of this combined to allow full photo operations during high speed flights. The XF-12 also carried a variety of photographic equipment, including complete darkroom facilities to permit the development and printing of films in flight. This was augmented by adjustable storage racks, able to handle any size film containers and additional photo equipment. This allowed the Army Intelligence units to have immediate access to the intelligence the aircraft was able to collect, with no delay in processing.

The Rainbow featured a wing of straight taper with squared tips and high aspect ratio for maximum efficiency. The engines featured a sliding cowl arrangement to facilitate cooling airflow instead of the normal cowl flaps, which caused too much drag. At the front of the cowls, the engines were also fitted with a two stage "impeller fan" directly behind the propeller hub and prop spinner. This allowed the engines to be tightly cowled for aerodynamic efficiency, but still provide the cooling airflow the engines required. When the sliding cowl ring was closed (during flight), the air used for cooling the engine was ducted through the nacelle to the rear exhaust orifice for a net thrust gain, as opposed to the usual cooling drag penalty.

All of the air for the engine intakes, oil coolers and intercoolers was drawn through the front of each wing between the inboard and outboard engines. This allowed less drag than with individual intakes for each component. In addition, because the air was taken from a high-pressure area at the front of the wing, this provided a "ram air" benefit for increased power at high speeds, and more effective cooling of the oil and intercoolers. The intake portion of the wing comprised 25% of the total wingspan. They were extensively wind tunnel tested for intake efficiency and inlet contour efficiency. This cooling air, after being utilized, was ducted toward the rear of the nacelle, to provide additional net thrust. The entire engine nacelle was the length of a P-47 Thunderbolt (also built by Republic). Each engine featured twin General Electric turbochargers, situated at the aft end of the nacelle.

All of the exhaust from the P&W R-4360 was ducted straight out of the back of the nacelles. This provided additional thrust. Research showed that approx 250 equivalent horsepower was generated by each engine exhaust during high speed cruise at 40,000 ft.

The original design of the XF-12 called for contra-rotating propellers, similar to those used on the original XF-11. However, due to the added complexity and reliability issues, the propellers were never installed. They would have been twin three-bladed propellers (rotating in opposite directions). As it was, the aircraft used standard four-bladed Curtiss Electric propellers for all flights.


When the XF-12 was modified with increased "all weather" equipment and outfitted with its new engines capable of providing short bursts of extra power, it suddenly assumed tremendous importance in the eyes of both the U.S. Air Force and the State Department. As a potent intelligence weapon, the XF-12 had the ability to obtain photographs both in daylight and under conditions of restricted visibility at high altitudes over long ranges and with great speed. In theory, operating from northern bases (Alaska and Canada), this "flying photo laboratory" was capable of mapping broad stretches of territory in the Arctic regions performing reconnaissance with near-invulnerability.

The first prototype was damaged in landing on 10 July 1947. The aircraft was undergoing maximum landing weight tests. During one particularly hard landing, the right main gear was severed at the engine nacelle. The aircraft bounced hard, and staggered back into the air. The test pilot was able to maintain control, and climb to a safe altitude. He continued to fly the aircraft to burn off excess fuel, to both make the aircraft lighter and lessen the chance of fire. Once excess fuel was burned off, the pilot landed on the left main gear and the nose wheel. The pilot touched down, and while keeping the right wing up, scrubbed off as much speed as possible before it touched down. During the incident the aircraft suffered significant damage. The right wing spar was cracked, and the #3 and #4 engines and props needed to be replaced due to the ground contact. The aircraft was repaired by Republic, and later returned to service.

The only external difference between the first and second prototypes was the addition of cooling gills on the upper engine cowlings. Internally, the second prototype was far more "finished." This included its full operational reconnaissance equipment suite, to allow for further testing.

The XF-12 was later re-designated XR-12, when the U.S. Army Air Forces separated from the Army and became the U.S. Air Force.

The most successful part of the XF-12 flight history is "Operation Birds Eye." The mission was conceived to demonstrate the newly designated XF-12’s ultimate photo capabilities. On 1 September 1948, the second prototype XF-12 departed U.S. Air Force Flight Test Center at Muroc, California, and climbed westward to gain altitude over the Pacific Ocean. Upon reaching its 40,000 ft cruising altitude, the XF-12 headed eastward and began photographing its entire flight path over the United States. The crew shot a continuous 325 foot-long strip of film composed of 390 individual photos (10 inches per photo) covering a 490-mile-wide field of vision. The aircraft landed at Mitchel Field at Garden City, Long Island, New York, completing a flight lasting six hours and 55 minutes at 361 mph average speed (approx. 1m4s per photo). The record-shattering flight was featured in the 29 November 1948 issue of Life magazine and the actual filmstrip went on exhibit at the 1948 U.S. Air Force Association Convention in New York.

At the time this record flight was made, the U.S. Air Force had already canceled the entire XF-12 program. The primary reason for its demise was the availability of both Boeing B-29 Superfortress and B-50 types to meet the long-range photo-reconnaissance requirement until the far more capable Boeing RB-47 Stratojet was brought into service. The B-29 and B-50 gave the U.S. Air Force less costly "off the shelf" options.

Republic had intended to also build an airline version of the aircraft to be known as the RC-2. This variant was supposed to be a "stretched" version of the XF-12, growing in length from 93 ft 9 in to 98 ft 9 in, with the addition of a fuselage "plug" in front of the wing. Also the complex Plexiglas nose section was supposed to be replaced with a solid metal nose with a bifurcated windshield. Fuel capacity would have been increased, and more powerful (at lower altitude) P&W R-4360-59s would have been substituted in place of the P&W R-4360-31s on the U.S. Air Force version. The engines also would have only had one General Electric turbosupercharger each, instead of the dual arrangement on the U.S. Air Force model. The aircraft would be lavishly appointed for the 46 passengers and seven crew. It would have been fully pressurized to sea level, air conditioned, with an electric galley providing hot meals and with an inflight lounge. It would have had the ability to cruise above the weather at 435 mph at 40,000 feet. No versions of this aircraft were ever built.

Without an order from the U.S. Air Force to offset the cost for development and tooling, the cost of building the civilian airliners went up exponentially. As a result, the two airlines (American Airlines and Pan-Am) that had originally placed tentative purchase orders, both cancelled due to the additional unit cost. Economically, the RC-2 wasn't as feasible as other designs available at the time, such as the Lockheed Constellation and the Douglas DC-6. Both of those aircraft could carry more people, at a lower cost per mile. In addition, after the hostilities ended in World War II, there were large collections of surplus military transports available for purchase, such as the Douglas C-54 Skymaster. These former transport aircraft lent themselves to be readily converted to airline service at a fraction of the cost of buying new aircraft. Without additional orders, Republic cancelled all further plans to build not only the XF-12 but also the RC-2, leaving just the two original prototypes.

On 7 November 1948, prototype number two, 44-91003, crashed at 1300 hrs. while returning to Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. The number 2 (port inner) engine exploded as the aircraft was returning from a photographic suitability test flight. The pilot was unable to maintain control due to violent buffeting, and he ordered the crew to bail out. Five of the seven crew escaped safely, including pilot Lynn Hendrix, rescued by Eglin crash boats and helicopters. The airframe impacted two miles south of the base in the Choctawhatchee Bay. Sgt. Vernon B. Palmer and M/Sgt. Victor C. Riberdy were killed. The first prototype, which returned to service in 1948, continued the flight testing and development phase. After the U.S. Air Force declined to order any additional aircraft, and with the loss of the second prototype, the flight testing period wound down. In June 1952, the first prototype, 44-91002, was retired (having flown just 117 additional hours from 1949 to 1952), was stricken from the U.S. Air Force inventory and ended up as a target on the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

Had the XF-12 Rainbow been available in 1944, it almost inevitably would have been ordered in quantity, and along with its civilian counterpart, the whole postwar structure of aircraft markets might have been altered. As it was, the XF-12 disappeared into oblivion, despite its graceful lines and high performance. According to Machat, the Rainbow remains the ultimate expression of multi-engine, piston-powered aircraft design. Its high speed, near-perfect streamlined form, and neatly cowled engines make it a design classic, often unappreciated, and not very well known. The XF-12 was the fastest, four engine pure piston-powered aircraft of its day, and the only such ever to exceed 450 mph in level flight.
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Old 04-10-2013, 01:45 PM
  #8233
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

work will be keeping me away from the computer for a while so ill pass the next question on to someone else
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Old 04-10-2013, 02:23 PM
  #8234
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz


Quote:
ORIGINAL: racer639

work will be keeping me away from the computer for a while so ill pass the next question on to someone else

Okay, Guys; the floor is open. First to post a question, etc. I will be out of town for a few days, so I'd prefer someone else stand in. Thanks; Ernie P.
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Old 04-11-2013, 04:13 AM
  #8235
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Mig-25 Oops, slow update... belay my last
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Old 04-11-2013, 06:01 AM
  #8236
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

OK, I will step in,

I'm thinking of an airplane

1) US built fighter
2) Biplane 
3) Leader in one category at least
4) No one has ever built an RC airplane of it

Whit


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Old 04-11-2013, 09:48 AM
  #8237
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deleted
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Old 04-11-2013, 09:50 AM
  #8238
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P-72
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Old 04-11-2013, 03:24 PM
  #8239
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

Nope, not the P-72

I'm thinking of an airplane

1) US built fighter
2) Biplane 
3) Leader in one category at least
4) "Perfect" flight test record
5) Claimed performance did not materialize.

Sent from AOL Mobile Mail
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Old 04-12-2013, 03:30 AM
  #8240
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

I'm thinking of an airplane

I'm thinking of an airplane

1) US built fighter
2) Biplane
3) Leader in one category at least
4) No one has ever built an RC airplane of it
5) " Perfect" flight test record
6) claimed performance did not materialize
7) named for its designer

Whit
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Old 04-12-2013, 06:18 AM
  #8241
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

That "P-72" was in response to the previous question. RCU screwed up the posting
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Old 04-12-2013, 10:38 AM
  #8242
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No worries!

Whit
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Old 04-12-2013, 07:19 PM
  #8243
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

Your night time clue

I'm thinking of an airplane

1) US built fighter
2) Biplane 
3) Leader in one category at least
4) No one has ever built an RC airplane of it
5) " Perfect"  flight test record
6) claimed performance did not materialize
7) named for its designer
8) Designer a better salesman than engineer

Whit

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Old 04-13-2013, 12:15 PM
  #8244
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Quote:
ORIGINAL: wphilb

Your night time clue

I'm thinking of an airplane

1) US built fighter
2) Biplane
3) Leader in one category at least
4) No one has ever built an RC airplane of it
5) '' Perfect'' flight test record
6) claimed performance did not materialize
7) named for its designer
8) Designer a better salesman than engineer

Whit


How about the Berliner-Joyce XF3J? Thanks; Ernie P.


The Berliner-Joyce XF3J was an American biplane fighter, built by Berliner-Joyce Aircraft. It was submitted to the United States Navy for their request for a single-seat carrier-based fighter powered by a 625 hp (466 kW) Wright R-1510-26 engine.

The XF3J had elliptical fabric covered wings which gave it the appearance of a butterfly. The fuselage was semimonocoque metallic with an aluminum skin. The undercarriage was fixed, and would be the last biplane fighter without a retractable gear that the U.S. Navy would test. The aircraft performed satisfactorily in testing, but more promising aircraft had been developed and, in September 1935, the program was terminated.
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Old 04-13-2013, 03:51 PM
  #8245
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

Ernie,

Nope (I had not heard of that one)

I'm thinking of an airplane

1) US built fighter
2) Biplane
3) Leader in one category at least
4) No one has ever built an RC airplane of it
5) " Perfect" flight test record
6) Claimed performance did not materialize
7) Named for its designer
8) Designer a better salesman than engineer
9) Cost the US Army an engine, and two test pilots their lives.

Whit

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Old 04-13-2013, 04:00 PM
  #8246
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

The Christmas Bullet?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_Bullet

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Old 04-13-2013, 04:02 PM
  #8247
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Well done!

Tell him what he's won! $.25 in expired coupons and the right to confound us in turn....


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Christmas Bullet
c. 1918
RoleScout
National originUnited States
ManufacturerChristmas Aeroplane Company
DesignerWilliam W. Christmas, Vincent Burnelli
First flightJanuary 1919[1]
StatusDestroyed
Number built2


The Christmas Bullet, later known as the Cantilever Aero Bullet (sometimes referred to as the Christmas Strutless Biplane), was an American single-seat cantilever wing biplane. It is considered by many to be among the worst aircraft ever constructed.[2]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Design and development



Dr. William W. Christmas (1865-1960),[3] who had no experience in aircraft design or aeronautical work, claimed to have built an aircraft of his own design in 1908 that was lost in a crash.[4] After a second aircraft was supposedly built, called the Red Bird, later modified into the Red Bird II, Christmas founded the Christmas Aeroplane Company based in Washington, DC, in 1910. No evidence beyond his own claims has ever been found for the existence of either of these aircraft. By 1912, the company became the Durham Christmas Aeroplane Sales & Exhibition Company and later the Cantilever Aero Company after moving to Copiague, NY, in 1918.[4]



Christmas convinced two brothers, Henry McCorey and Alfred McCorey, to back him. They then paid a visit to the Continental Aircraft Company, of Long Island, where Christmas convinced management that his planned aircraft would be the key element in an audacious plot to kidnap Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. Two designs were proposed, a single-seat "scout" and a three-place "fighting machine."[4]



The single-seat "Christmas Bullet" featured an all-wood construction with a veneer-clad fuselage, although despite his claims to the contrary, neither design feature reduced aerodynamic drag, nor was he among the first to use this method of construction; the majority of German World War I-era two-seater aircraft used for bombing and reconnaissance were similarly constructed. The "Bullet" was powered by a prototype Liberty 6 engine. Although the US Army had been persuaded to loan an engine, the proviso was that the prototype engine was to be fitted into an airframe for ground testing only.[5]



The design had a serious flaw in that it lacked any kind of struts or braces for the wings, with Christmas' insisting that they should be flexible. Control of the aircraft was meant to be achieved by applying the technique of wing warping to its tail surfaces.[4] Although the Chief Engineer at Continental, Vincent Burnelli, tried to institute changes, the "Christmas Bullet" was completed with the original design features intact. Construction materials were scrounged from available wood and steel stock and were not "aircraft grade", which was also a concern to Burnelli.[4]

[edit] Operational history



On its maiden flight in January 1919, the wings of the "Bullet" peeled from the fuselage and the aircraft crashed,[2] killing the pilot, Cuthbert Mills.[4] The destruction of the prototype Liberty engine was never revealed to the US Army and a second Bullet was built powered by an Hall-Scott L-6 engine.[2] Despite the crash, Christmas placed an Valspar ad in Flying Magazine stating that the Christmas Bullet achived a 197 mph top speed demonstrated in front of Col Harmon at Central Park, Long Island. The second aircraft was displayed in Madison Square Garden on 8 March 1919 as the "First Strutless Airplane".[6] It was also destroyed on its first flight, again with the loss of the test pilot, Lt. Allington Joyce Jolly. Jolly is buried in the Cropsey Cemetery in Cropsey, Illinois. The project was abandoned before its United States Army Air Service (USAAS) evaluation.[1] Following the crash of the second Bullet, Christmas continued to campaign for more funding for further projects, seeking out private and government sources, claiming "hundreds" of patents or patent submissions based on his aeronautical research. His far-fetched assertions were proved untrue but he did apparently sell his unusual wing design to the US Army ("or so he claimed").[2]



A contemporary technical description with photographs and drawings appeared in Flight, 13 February 1919, claiming that "it would seem that such construction would result in a low factor of safety, but the designer claims a safety factor of seven throughout".[7]

[edit] Specifications (First prototype)

Data from [1]



General characteristics

    [*]Crew: 1[*]Length: 21 ft 0 in (6.40 m)[*]Wingspan: 28 ft 0 in (8.53 m)[*]Wing area: 170 ft2 (15.79 m2)[*]Empty weight: 1,820 lb (826 kg)[*]Gross weight: 2,100 lb (953 kg)[*]Powerplant: 1 × Liberty 6, 185 hp ( kW)[/list]
    Performance

      [*]Maximum speed: 175 (anticipated) mph (282 km/h)[*]Range: 550 miles (885 km)[*]Service ceiling: 14,700 ft (4,481 m)[/list]

      [edit] See also

      Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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Old 04-13-2013, 05:55 PM
  #8248
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

Always wanted to build a model of that ship...just wouldn't want to carry out a "scale" flight routine! 


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Old 04-14-2013, 03:49 AM
  #8249
JohnnyS
 
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz



Ok, here goes:

1. Twin engined

2. Has been and/or is being operated by the US, Taiwan, South Korea, Iran and Turkey.

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Old 04-14-2013, 04:00 AM
  #8250
Ram-bro
 
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Default RE: Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

the F4 phanthom
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