through Horizon Hobby
4105 Fieldstone Rd.
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone: (217) 352-1913
Piper PA-25 Pawnee was designed by Fred Weick in 1958
and was produced in a number of variants by Piper
Aircraft Company between 1959 until 1982.
for the agricultural spraying industry, the Pawnee
is simple, rugged, and easy to maintain. The
Pawnee features a single engine and fabric covered
tubular steel airframe construction.
from the Pawnee's primary crop dusting duties
the PA-25 has also served widely as a glider tow plane
as well as pulling advertising banners. One
of my favorite airplanes, my earliest memories of
the Pawnee are of one towing banners up and down the
beach while spending the summers of my youth on the
beach in Ocean City, New Jersey.
9 had already offered an IMAA legal 80" Pawnee
that I had considered building when I got wind of
the larger one third scale 80cc Pawnee that was on
the horizon (no pun). There are several members
of our club active in scale glider towing and I fly
both gliders as well as the tow planes. As soon
as I saw the previews for the new 33 percent Pawnee
I knew that my search for a new glider tug was over.
Pawnee will be powered by the recommended Zenoah GT-80
80cc twin. RC Extreme Power provided an electronic
ignition conversion for the review as well.
I've seen the GT-80 run very well with the stock
magneto ignition but the the EI conversion is both
lighter and the spring starter makes me a bit nervous.
often see two full scale Pawnee's in the Jacksonville
area so there is no shortage of scale inspiration
or subjects locally. One is the primary tow
plane for the local glider club and the other I see
almost every weekend towing banners at the beach or
around the Jaguars football stadium.
Photo courtesy of
Accurate scale outline.
Functioning scale landing gear struts and shocks.
Flexible motor mounting setup allows choice of engines.
Flies like a big baby!
Outstanding covering job.
High amount of pre-fabrication
Massive 2 piece aluminum wing joiner.
Easy access to radio system
Wing installation and removal is fast and easy.
Even with some added lead, a pilot figure and tow release,
the Pawnee still came in UNDER the recommended weight limit.
Wing jury struts required some modification to fit correctly.
Wing anti-rotation pin holes in fuselage were not aligned
and required some work to get the wings to plug in and the
Wingspan: 130 in (3.30m) Wing Area: 2620 sq in (169 sq dm) Weight: 34.0-38.0 lb (15.5-17.3 kg) Length: 94.0 in (2.40m) Center of Gravity (CG): 8.5" to 9" from the
leading edge Radio Used:
JR 11X 2.4 with
Spektrum AR12110 DSMX Power Safe Rx Servos Used: (9)
Spektrum A6020 Digital Servos. Battery Used:
(2) WrongWay RC A123 Nano Phosphate 2300Mah Channels Used: 7 total - Elevator, Aileron, Throttle,
Rudder, Flaps, optical kill switch, glider release. (On the
review plane each aileron, elevator half, and flap is on its
own channel and mixed using the 11X channel mate feature) Weight Range: 34-38 Lbs (15.5 -17.25kg) Flying Weight: 35lbs 5oz ZFW (16kg)
was a little worried when Fed-Ex called and asked if
a tractor trailer could get into and out of my street
to deliver a package! The driver seemed surprised
for some reason when he realized he was delivering a
model airplane, I think he thought it might have been
an ultra light!
The PA-25 Pawnee arrived in three very large
boxes. The painted fiberglass cowl occupied it's
own box, the wings were in another, and a box the size
of a coffin contained the fuselage, tail feathers, and
everything else to assemble the plane.
did a quick inspection for damage and finding none I
set about making sure everything I needed was present
and accounted for.
The Pawnee is constructed of a mixture of laser cut
balsa and lite-ply. The wing features a flat bottom
airfoil and curved fiberglass wing tips. The fuselage
has hatches in all of the right places including the
main cockpit windows that are hinged for easy access.
There are two hatches near the tail that house the three
tail servos and a large battery compartment that appears
that they were expecting the Pawnee to be nose heavy.
It's a good thing because my dual battery packs
ended up back there along with some lead. The
advertising for the Pawnee indicates the forward hatch
is to access the fuel tank and the tank is indeed right
there at the CG, but it's a good thing it's
there as removing the hatch is the only way to access
the forward two wing bolts. The hatch is pinned
at the front and held in place by two button head hex
screws so it's easy to remove for tank or wing bolt
is a lot of work already completed for you. The
ailerons, flaps, and elevators are already hinged for
you. Much of the articulated scale landing gear
is assembled as well. The motor box features a
laser etched template with the mounting bolt locations
for several popular engine choices including the recommended
GT-80 already marked.
The engine mounts to the motor box which then can slide
in or out like a drawer to the proper position to accommodate
the length of the engine of your choice. All of
the included hardware is of excellent quality and of
adequate size for the giant Pawnee. The size of
the Pawnee was intended to give the builder a wide choice
of engines and Horizon has flown the Pawnee on all of
the appropriate engines that they sell as well as the
fuselage and wing is covered with white Ultracote with
red and blue trim in the scheme used by the Wabash Valley
Soaring Association. All of the decals and trim
are already applied. The trim paint on the cowl
matches the Ultracote perfectly in color and lines up
If this is your first crack at giant scale, you shouldn't
have any problem getting the Pawnee ready for flight.
Though if this is your first giant scale, please have
your aircraft checked over by someone with experience
with large planes as this large aircraft could do significant
damage to persons or property if something were to go
manual for the Hangar 9 Pawnee is exactly as I have come
to expect from my experience with Hangar 9 models, that
is to say, it's outstanding. The well written
manual has is photo illustrated at nearly every step and
includes mechanical drawings where needed.
manual covers everything that I think is essential for a
great manual: a complete inventory, concise instructions,
clear photographs, center of gravity, control throws, and
most importantly product support contact information.
always make a habit of checking online to see if there are
any updates for the instructions for the kit I'm working
on but as of this writing none were available for the Pawnee.
As soon as I learned that I would be reviewing the Pawnee
I downloaded and examined the manual and I didn't find
any areas I thought would benefit from freelancing the assembly
building or repairing a gas airplane, always use thread
locker on ALL metal to metal connections!
you unpack anything make sure you have enough room to
work on the Pawnee. The wing panels are 60"
long each with a 20" chord, and the fuselage is nearly
a foot wide and over 90" long.
I had my work area laid out I set up a new model in my
JR 11X 2.4gHz radio and bound it to a Spektrum 12210 Power
Safe receiver. The 11X (as well as several other
of the high end radios) makes setting up multiple servos
for one control a snap with the surface mating feature.
The Pawnee uses 2 aileron servos, 2 flap servos, and 2
elevator servos. Using the mating feature eliminates
setting up a program mix and ensures that any trim or
mixing applied to the master channel affects each surface
equally. Having the radio ready to go allowed
me to set up each control surface as the build moved along.
first step to building the Pawnee is assembling the massive
wing panels. Remove and mark each hatch for location
and orientation and use the provided hardwood blocks to
install the servos. If you're using the Spektrum
servos and JR arms the servo arm comes with a hex head
screw that replaces the easily stripped phillips head
screw provided with the servo. To complete the installation
I used the hex screw from the servo arms and the star
washer from the hardware provided with the servos.
When installing the aileron servos the recommended servo
extensions are perfect. Also there is string provided
to pull the aileron servo extensions through the wing.
Use some heat shrink or dental floss and secure the servo
extensions to the servo wires so nothing becomes disconnected
at an inopportune time.
flap servos didn't get the factory string and I think
there's a misprint in the manual because the indicated
3" extension for the flap servos is barely long enough
to reach the wing root and I replaced them with 12"
extensions. I could probably have gotten away with
6" extensions here but the 3" were definitely
too short. I used a piece of music wire with a hook
on the end to fish the wires through for the flaps but
a string and large nut would work just as well as it's
a straight shot through the ribs to the wing root.
the "wow that's a nice touch" department,
strings are provided to pull lighting wiring through the
front of the wing if you wish to add a scale light kit
to your Pawnee. I have a set of E-Z Lights on order
from East Coast Vario but they were not received in time
to make the review. I did glue the included clear
lenses on with RC-56 canopy glue so that they would be
easy to remove once it was time to add the lights.
the 4 control horns is straightforward. I found
it convenient to have an electric screw driver on hand
to run the counter-sunk screws through each control surface.
These call for epoxy and whenever you use epoxy around
the Pawnee's nice white covering job, take care to
have some alcohol and clean paper towels handy to remove
any excess glue before it has a chance to set up.
wing jury strut installation is where I ran into one of
the very few problems I had with the kit. With the
attachment points installed on the wing as indicated,
and the struts oriented correctly (I checked several times
to make sure I wasn't doing something wrong), the
strut simply would not sit far enough into the mount for
the screw to clear. I reluctantly took the struts
to my bench grinder and had to remove about half of the
material between the bolt hole and the bottom of the strut
so that the bolt would pass through both the mount and
The Pawnee kit uses a set of bolts, fuel tubing, and cotter
pins to attach the struts to the wing. The fuel
tubing slips over the bolt and when the bolt is passed
through the hole and the cotter pin is installed, the
tubing compresses and keeps everything tight. The
same connection is used to attach the struts to the fuselage
during field assembly and I found it to work very well.
In fact, I saved one of the clear servo boxes and carry
the bolts, cotter pins, wing bolts, and front hatch bolts
all in one place when the Pawnee is disassembled for transport.
When you have everything connected, install the strut
covers with RC-56, tape them down with painters tape and
when the glue is dry the wings are done!
hatches are provided at the rear of the plane for both
servo and battery access. The Pawnee uses one servo for
each elevator half and a pull pull system for the rudder.
Considering where the CG ended up on my plane even with
the heavy spring starter components removed, I'm glad
they designed the plane with rear mounted servos in mind.
The battery tray was just an added bonus or I surely would
have been fabricating one back there.
you read ahead in the instruction manual you know that
you're going to install the tail struts to the two
forward servo hatch bolts later on. You can either
fish two of the brass strut fittings out now and install
them, or leave them for later.
you're done buttoning up the tail it's time to
move on to the scale landing gear.
Hangar 9 took the time to faithfully reproduce functional
scale landing gear for the Pawnee that replicates the
real thing while being very easy to assemble. There
is no bending, soldering, or fussing; the whole thing
goes together like an erector set. Add the large
tires and the Pawnee should be able to handle almost anything
that resembles a runway.
scale landing gear is one of the features that has gotten
the most attention from folks looking (drooling really)
over the Pawnee at the flying field. The shock absorbers
are so cool it's a shame they are buried up inside
the subject of easy to assemble, the stabilizer and elevator
installation is about as simple as it gets. The
elevators are pre-hinged at the factory like the flaps
and ailerons so that chore is already done for you.
Simply fit the tubes in the correct holes (short one to
the front) and bolt the stabilizers in place. I
double checked the incidence when I was done and they
were square and dead on.
Assemble the elevator pushrods just like the ailerons.
The Hanger 9 ball links, standoffs, and turn buckles are
of very high quality and I haven't had any issues
with the hardware in this kit. Though it wasn't
specified in the manual, I went ahead and applied epoxy
to the bolts here as well where they went through the
assembling the elevator servo arms, make sure everything
is sub-trimmed so that the arms are 90 degrees to the
servo body on both sides. If you try to eyeball
this you're likely to have uneven elevator throw.
Attention to detail here will pay dividends later on.
tail wheel bracket and hardware appear robust enough to
take the rigors of every day Pawnee flying. The
rudder and servo are isolated from the tail wheel by the
use of springs. The springs provide tail wheel steering
while not passing the shocks of landing on to the servo
you're done installing the tail wheel it's time
to make up the eight tail strut rods. I'm not
sure if they are functional on the model but while it's
a little bit tedious getting them all tight enough not
to rattle while not being too tight, it's worth the
effort because they really do look good when you're
done. They are a scale detail that is included on
the full scale Pawnee in any case.
time to prepare the rudder for installation. The
rudder is the only surface where you have to install and
glue hinges but the holes are already drilled for you.
In order to prevent inadvertently gluing the hinges I
coated the pivot points with Vaseline petroleum jelly.
Also, since you're going to use epoxy to install the
hinges you can work with one side at a time to make sure
the alignment is perfect. I glued the hinges into
the rudder and when they were dry I installed the rudder
to the fin.
of the nice features of the magneto system is that it eliminates
installing and charging an ignition battery. Since I was
planning on installing dual receiver batteries and one was going
to do double duty powering the ignition I didn't consider
this an inconvenience.
The instructions say to epoxy the motor box together but
I also drilled and glued in 4 hardwood dowel pieces to
pin the box in place. Since it swells up as it dries
I used carpenters wood glue to install the pins then sanded
them flush to the motor box. This was for my own
peace of mind since I plan on towing some expensive gliders
I want to make things as bullet proof as possible.
GT-80 features an increased bore diameter,
increasing displacement to 80ccï¿½s and
boosting horsepower to 5.5. Dual rings on
each piston give a superior seal, while
the self-contained Quartz ignition gives
a reliable spark without the hassles of
charging ignition batteries. Startingï¿½s
a breeze with the rear-mounted spring starter,
just wind the prop clockwise one turn then
release. And this simultaneous firing twin
runs so silky smooth from idle to full power,
you can forget about vibration- related
airframe and electronic problems.
cubic inches of power in a smooth running
CDI ignition system
a whopping 6 horsepower to drive a 24x10
APC at 7500 rpm
1.60 in (40.50 mm)
1.22 in (31.00 mm)
4.88 cu in (80.0 cc)
RPM Range: 2,000 - 17,000 rpm
Thread Size: 1/4 x 24
Weight: 108 oz
Only Weight: 123 oz
Weight: 15 oz
RPM Range: 2,000 - 17,000 rpm
Range: 22x12 - 24x10
Dimensions: 192 x 257 x 205 mm
Type: Twin Chrome Plated, Ring
Type: Walbro WJ-64
Type: Ball bearing
Warranty- Horizon Hobby, Inc., (Horizon)
warranties that the Products purchased (the
"Product") will be free from defects
in materials and workmanship for a period
of 3 years from the date of purchase by
have been using rubber sealing washers to mount fiberglass
cowls and in other applications on gas airplanes for some
time now. I was really glad to see that Hangar 9
included sealing washers to hold the cowl and hatch of
the Pawnee in place. These hold well and don't
eat away at the fiberglass and most importantly; they
you're running the Zenoah engine there is a cut out
for a throttle servo right on top of the motor box..
To get proper throttle geometry my engine guy ended up
making an extended throttle arm (it pays to be friends
with a machinist!). I have always found the carb
arms on our gas engines annoyingly short and nearly always
install some sort of extension so I get increased end
points for better throttle resolution.
actuate the choke I considered adding a separate choke
servo underneath and I had one channel left on my 11X
but in the end I elected to stick to the manual method.
it's not documented in the manual, located in the
fuel tank access area are servo cut outs that are provided
if you use a different engine and the top mounted throttle
servo won't work for you. They also provided
a pushrod for that purpose. I purloined that pushrod,
cut it off, and ran it out the bottom of the cowl and
attached it to the choke actuator. Its nearly invisible
and works like a champ. When I found out I was nose
heavy even with the removal of the spring starter parts
and two batteries in the tail, I was glad I didn't
add any more weight to the engine compartment.
fuel tank was already assembled and mounts in the generous
front area right on the center of gravity. I mounted
the tank on self adhesive foam insulation strips available
from any home supply store. The only modification
I made was to cut the feed line to the carb and install
a Tee fitting along with a Gem-Dot machined fuel dot.
Use tie wraps or safety wire on all of the connections
as tygon fuel line can swell over time. The vent
line was routed to the bottom of the cowl and I installed
a rubber grommet for it to pass through.
the time came to put everything together I found the second
area of my kit that needed some extra work. With
the aluminum wing joiner installed on the right wing and
the wing slid up to the anti-rotation pins, only one pin
would seat, the other pin wouldn't align. I
had to use a Dremel tool and a sanding disk to open up
the hole, top to bottom a bit. Fore/aft alignment
was fine. The left wing was out even farther.
Before I set to work on the holes I used a incidence meter
to see whether the front or back needed to go down a bit.
It turned out to get equal incidence I needed to enlarge
the back hole slightly.
the engine installation completed all that remained was
to install the rest of the radio equipment and balance the
plane. I have been using A123 battery packs from WrongWayRC
for some time in my aerobatic gas planes so I contacted
Richard and discussed the power system for the Pawnee.
We decided to go with dual 2300Mah A123 battery packs feeding
the R12110 DSMX Power Safe Reciever. In addition one
of the packs will have an output that goes to a JR HD charge
switch, then to the RCExcel Optical Kill Switch, to a WrongWayRC
ignition voltage drop diode, then on to the ignition.
Power Safe receivers from JR/Spektrum provide a reliable
battery redundancy system. The switch itself is unique
as well, when the switch is closed a small current goes
through the switch and this holds the receiver in a power
off state. When the switch is open the receiver is
powered on. Since the failure mode of most switches
is open, if the switch fails the power to the receiver stays
on, which sure beats the alternative! The other side
of that coin is that when you're storing the airplanes,
the batteries feeding a power safe receiver should be disconnected
as that small current will drain your batteries down over
only high rates were specified in the manual I made a few
guesses as to low rates. Flight testing proved I didn't
need them and I have been flying in the recommended rates
since half way through the first test flight. I did
add 35 percent expo to everything to give the Pawnee that
smooth scale flying look. Flap throw was set per the
manual with .7sec delay set between steps on a three position
are switch cut outs provided all over inside the Pawnee.
You merely have to decide where you want your switches
based on your particular radio equipment layout.
One of the things I really liked is that the switch cutouts
land squarely on the blue stripes so they don't stand
out like sore thumbs on the white. I installed the
soft switch for the Power Safe receiver and the JR Heavy
Duty Charge Switch for the ignition system. Hangar
9 provided both the large and small switch cutouts so
it's clear the equipment flexibility extends to the
radio system as well as the engine mounting. In
addition to the switches I drilled a small hole and mounted
the LED indicator light for the electronic ignition system
and the Gem-Dot fuel dot.
last thing to install was the Red Aero RC pilot figure.
I fabricated a deck made out of plywood and epoxied it
to the bottom of the cockpit window rails. The pilot
bust was secured by making a plywood stringer and attaching
it with self tapping wood screws. If I had realized
in advance I was going to be making this deck in the cockpit,
I would have mounted the switches for the radio on the
the deck the pilot is sitting on to clean up the outside
of the fuselage.
came as no surprise that it took two of us to balance
the big Pawnee. With the batteries initially sitting
below the cockpit the Pawnee was seriously nose heavy.
I soldered up extensions for the batteries and installed
them in the rear access hatch. This was a lot better
but it still required 3 full sticks of Kwik Stik lead
as far back as I could hide them.
tow release is made in Germany and appears to be very
sturdy and very high quality. This release is unique
in that it is a two step release that can be used for
a number of applications aside from glider towing or could
even be used for towing more than one glider.
the tow release in the Pawnee meant removing two bays
of covering on the bottom and some of the foam that is
applied to the balsa sheeting on the turtle deck.
Once we got down to bare wood where we were going to glue,
we built a bulkhead and supports out of plywood.
Once the bulkhead and support were glued in place we fabricated
a mount for the servo out of plywood.
everything was checked and double checked I recovered
the bays and headed to the field to do a day of glider
the above steps make it sound simple, it took two of us
about 8 hours of work to custom fabricate, glue, and test
everything related to the glider tow release system.
Since this was beyond the scope of assembling and flying
the Pawnee for the review, I did not count this time towards
completing the project. Indeed, the review flights
were done the weekend prior to the installation of the
tow release and the glider towing portion of the review.
Thanks goes to my engine guy Joey for his help and expertise
in modifying the Pawnee for the tow release.
Pawnee is a natural glider tug as you will see from the
videos we shot with the GoPro HD camera. I have
flown a number of tow planes and the Pawnee gives a very
stable and predictable tow and it's generous fuel
tank has plenty of capacity for knocking out several tows
before needing to land and refuel. The day we shot
the video we were towing a quarter scale KA8B built and
flown by Steve Betts of Jacksonville. We have a
number of scale gliders in our club so the Pawnee will
be doing regular tow plane duty.
the Pawnee at the field consists of removing the tank hatch,
sliding the unique aluminum wing joiner into each wing half,
fitting the wings to the fuselage, connecting the 4 servo
cables, and installing 4 each wing bolts and strut bolts
and cotter pins. When you're done you have to
reattach the tank hatch and you're ready to pump fuel.
New review planes always attract attention but it's
looks and size make the Pawnee the center of attention almost
every time it's at the field. Be prepared to answer
questions and wheel the Pawnee out to a nice clear spot
for pictures. The Piper Pawnee attracted a lot of
attention any time I took it out of the trailer. How
big, what engine, how many channels, how much does it cost?
Since I was starting with a brand new engine I mixed up
a gallon of 32:1 Lawnboy oil to let the cylinders heat up
and seat the rings. With the choke on, ignition on,
and the throttle at about 1/4 the GT-80 popped after about
8 flips, with the choke off it started on the third flip
and was purring like a kitten without touching the needles.
I ran it for a few minutes, shut it down, checked everything
over and refueled and did a few taxi tests. The Pawnee
handled well in the grass but I would prefer a bit stiffer
springs because the steering felt a bit "mushy"
on the asphalt.
With the Zenoah idling reliably and providing what felt
like plenty off pull, I lined the Pawnee up on center line
and advanced the throttle. The tail wheel was off
the ground almost instantly and the rudder has authority
very quickly. The takeoff roll was short and the Pawnee
was climbing away in no time. Unfortunately as soon
as I turned down wind one of the doors was flapping in the
breeze and shortly thereafter departed the plane, I turned
final and did a no flap landing to see what happened.
It appears on my kit that the stringer on the bottom of
the door didn't have enough glue and the stringer and
hinges were still attached to the airplane. The latch
at the top of the canopy stayed put, everything else was
on the hill. We retrieved the part, made some field
repairs, and I lined every window joint with RC-56 canopy
glue. Nothing else came loose or had any issues for
the rest of our testing.
With the cockpit door fixed the rest of the flights that
weekend were much more enjoyable. The Pawnee flew
like a low wing Cub. The GT-80 pulls it around with
authority with the recommended 24x10 propeller. Low
passes at full throttle then pulling up into a hammer head
stall turn like the crop dusters look great and the big
twin really sounds the part.
fly a little of everything but high performance is my thing
so I couldn't help but try a few aerobatics with the
Pawnee. Rolls took surprisingly little down elevator,
so little that my first attempt had the nose and wheels
headed skyward because I way over estimated the amount of
down to keep the nose level. The ailerons are big
so it has plenty of control authority but the wings are
huge so don't expect it to roll like an Extra.
While the Pawnee certainly doesn't have unlimited vertical
it will pull decent looking up-lines and do nice big loops.
Wingovers and hammer heads look great as well.
took her up high and pointed the Pawnee into the wind, dropped
the throttle and added elevator to see where she stalled.
Anyone that flies large planes knows that the bigger they
are the closer they mimic the real thing and the 33 percent
Pawnee is no exception. If you get it slow enough,
it will drop a wing. You have to really be mushing
along before that happens and the Pawnee will let you know
you're going too slow well before you get into trouble.
It was time to set up for my first landing so I dropped
the flaps and noted that the promotional buzz was true,
there is no trim change at all when the flaps come down.
The Pawnee settled on the runway on it's main wheels
and came to a stop in about a hundred feet. Wheel
landings and three point landings both look great and three
point landings produce almost zero roll out. When
the glider tow line is attached I like to drop full flap,
come in steep and flare into a 3 point landing so I don't
have to taxi back to attach the next glider in line.
As the afternoon grew late I spent most of a flight doing
one of the things the Pawnee does best; touch and goes.
I tried no flap approaches and landings, half, and full
flap. The more flaps you use the steeper you can come
in without building up too much airspeed. Come in
too fast and the Pawnee will float to the next county before
it settles down. I had a dead stick or two while breaking
in the motor and had side slip in to kill altitude and not
over run our field.
Piper PA-25 Pawnee is a great subject for a civilian scale
model and Hangar 9 has done an outstanding job with this kit.
The covering, fit, and finish are outstanding. The Pawnee
can fly well on a number of engines from scale flying to enough
power to take off an accelerate straight up depending on your
engine choice. The accurate scale outline and open cockpit
area would make an excellent starting point for a scale project.
If you're new to giant scale, the Pawnee is a great kit
to start out with. The roomy fuselage has easy access
to all of the internal areas, much of the work is already
done for you, and it's flying characteristics will get
you comfortable flying large airplanes quickly. I invited
a variety of people at my club to fly the Pawnee and everyone
had the same smile on their face after just a few minutes.
Hangar 9 Models
through Horizon Hobby
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone: (217) 352-1913 http://www.hangar-9.com/
JR and Spektrum Radios
Distributed through Horizon Hobby
Champaign, IL 61822
Phone: (217) 352-1913 http://www.spektrumrc.com/
The comments, observations and conclusions made in this review are solely with respect to the particular item the editor reviewed and may not apply generally to similar products by the manufacturer. We cannot be responsible for any manufacturer defects in workmanship or other deficiencies in products like the one featured in the review.