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Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

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Knowledge Quiz for Warbird wiz

Old 03-31-2021, 05:04 AM
  #19576  
FlyerInOKC
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No guess eh? OK this morning's clues should narrow down your searches considerably OK all you lurkers here is your chance! I'm looking for a warbird.

1. The subject aircraft had a crew of two.
2. A large number of the subject aircraft were built but few remember it.
3. The subject aircraft was a tail dragger.
4. The aircraft was designed by an old reputable manufacturer.
5. The company responsible for the design would build less than 7% of the total number made.
6. Comparing the numbers the amount of B6N built are small but still higher than the number alluded to in clue 5.
7.As you might have already guess it wasn't a Japanese aircraft DUH!
8. The subject aircraft is a monoplane with a straight constant wing.
9. The wing was more than 70% longer than the fuselage.
10. Empty Weight was 3,900 lbs. and Max Takeoff weight was 7,500 lbs.
​​​​​​11. In emergency situations Max Takeoff weight could be pushed up to 9,000 lbs.
12. More than 15 individual companies built this aircraft during the war it served.
13. Several of the companies had never built aircraft before.
14. One of the aircraft companies building a small number of this aircraft was started several years before the war and would go out of business when the war ended.
15. One of the aircraft built by a licensed builders would be lost in the company's first public demonstration when a wing was loss due to a defective bracket from a subcontractor. All 10 aboard perished.
16. After the war a number of the remaining aircraft were sold of to the general public in large crates as surplus. They would end being converted to hen houses, small vacation cabins, and even travel trailers.
17. The aircraft had no engine.
Old 03-31-2021, 04:57 PM
  #19577  
uncljoe
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Waco glider
Semper Fi
Old 03-31-2021, 07:47 PM
  #19578  
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Originally Posted by uncljoe View Post
Waco glider
Semper Fi
We have a winner! You are up sir!
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waco_CG-4

The
Waco CG-4 was the most widely used American troop/cargo military glider of World War II. It was designated the CG-4A by the United States Army Air Forces,[1] and given the service name Hadrian (after the Roman emperor) by the British.

The glider was designed by the Waco Aircraft Company. Flight testing began in May 1942. More than 13,900 CG-4As were eventually delivered.

Design and development[edit]

The CG-4A was constructed of fabric-covered wood and metal and was crewed by a pilot and copilot. It had two fixed mainwheels and a tailwheel.

The CG-4A could carry 13 troops and their equipment. Cargo loads could be a ​1⁄4-ton truck (i.e. a Jeep), a 75 mm howitzer, or a ​1⁄4-ton trailer, loaded through the upward-hinged nose section. Douglas C-47 Skytrains were usually used as tow aircraft. A few Curtiss C-46 Commando tugs were used during and after the Operation Plunder crossing of the Rhine in March 1945.

The USAAF CG-4A tow line was 11⁄16 inch (17 mm) nylon, 350 feet (107 m) long. The CG-4A pickup line was ​15⁄16 inch (24 mm) diameter nylon, but only 225 ft (69 m) long including the doubled loop.

In effort to identify areas where strategic materials could be reduced, a single XCG-4B was built at the Timm Aircraft Corporation using wood for the main structure.[2]

Production[edit]

From 1942 to 1945, the Ford Motor Company's plant in Kingsford, Michigan, built 4,190 Model CG-4A gliders for use in combat operations during World War II. The Kingsford plant built more CG-4A gliders than any other company in the nation at much less cost than other manufacturers. The other primary builders of the Model CG-4A gliders were located in Troy, Ohio; Greenville, Michigan; Astoria, New York; Kansas City, Missouri and St. Paul, Minnesota.

The 16 companies that were prime contractors for manufacturing the CG-4A were:The factories ran 24-hour shifts to build the gliders. One night-shift worker in the Wicks Aircraft Company factory in Kansas City wrote,
On one side of the huge bricked-in room is a fan running, on the other a cascade of water to keep the air from becoming too saturated with paint. The men man the paint sprayers covering the huge wings of the glider with the Khaki or Blue and finishing it off with that thrilling white star enclosed in a blue circle that is winging its way around the world for victory ... The wings are first covered with a canvas fabric stretched on like wallpaper over plywood then every seam, hold, open place, closed place, and edge is taped down with the all adhesive dope that not only makes the wings airtight, but covers my hands, my slacks, my eyebrows, my hair, and my tools with a fast-drying coat that peels off like nail polish or rubs off with a thinner that burns like Hell.[9]

Operational history



Sedalia Glider Base was originally activated on 6 August 1942. In November 1942 the installation became Sedalia Army Air Field, (after the war would be renamed Whiteman Air Force Base) and was assigned to the 12th Troop Carrier Command of the United States Army Air Forces. The field served as a training site for glider pilots and paratroopers. Assigned aircraft included the CG-4A glider, Curtiss C-46 Commando, and Douglas C-47 Skytrain. The C-46 was not used as a glider tug in combat, however, until Operation Plunder (the crossing of the Rhine) in March 1945.

CG-4As went into operation in July 1943 during the Allied invasion of Sicily. They were flown 450 miles across the Mediterranean from North Africa for the night-time assaults such as Operation Ladbroke. Inexperience and poor conditions contributed to the heavy losses. They participated in the American airborne landings in Normandy on 6 June 1944, and in other important airborne operations in Europe and in the China Burma India Theater. Although not the intention of the Army Air Forces, gliders were generally considered expendable by high-ranking European theater officers and combat personnel and were abandoned or destroyed after landing. While equipment and methods for extracting flyable gliders were developed and delivered to Europe, half of that equipment was rendered unavailable by certain higher-ranked officers.[[i]citation needed] Despite this lack of support for the recovery system, several gliders were recovered from Normandy and even more from Operation Market Garden in the Netherlands and Wesel, Germany.

The CG-4A found favor where its small size was a benefit. The larger British Airspeed Horsa could carry more troopers (seating for 28 or a jeep or an anti-tank gun), and the British General Aircraft Hamilcar could carry 7 tons (enough for a light tank), but the CG-4A could land in smaller spaces. In addition, by using a fairly simple grapple system, an in-flight C-47 equipped with a tail hook and rope braking drum could "pick up" a CG-4A waiting on the ground.[10] The system was used in the 1945 high-elevation rescue of the survivors of the Gremlin Special 1945 crash, in a mountain valley of New Guinea.[11]

The CG-4A was also used to send supplies to partisans in Yugoslavia.

After World War II ended, most of the remaining CG-4As were declared surplus and almost all were sold. Many were bought for the wood in the large shipping boxes. Others were bought for conversion to towed camping homes with the wing and tail end cut off and being towed by the rear section and others sold for hunting cabins and lake side vacation cabins.

The last known use of the CG-4A was in the early 1950s by the USAF with an Arctic detachment aiding scientific research. The CG-4As were used for getting personnel down to, and up from, floating ice floes, with the glider being towed out, released for landing, and then picked up later by the same type of aircraft, using the hook and line method developed during World War II. The only modification to the CG-4A was the fitting of wide skis in place of the landing gear for landing on the Arctic ice floes.[12

Old 04-01-2021, 04:42 AM
  #19579  
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Great subject, Mike. Many years ago I read a book about the use of gliders in World War II. One interesting tidbit was that some USAAF pilots took some glider training in their down time just for the fun of it. But they were careful not to go all the way to qualification, because they didn't want to fly gliders in combat, a job which, among other drawbacks, turned the pilots into infantry when they landed.
Old 04-01-2021, 05:09 AM
  #19580  
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I think we overlook the contribution to the war effort gliders made. They aren't as exciting as the glory hound fighters and the big bombers. I remember German commandos made several successful attacks in western Europe with gliders early in the war but nothing on the scale the Allies did for D-Day.
Old 04-01-2021, 10:45 AM
  #19581  
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I don't have a question ,so someone else can fire away .I can recall my father using the plywood from gliders after the war , we had one or should say the fuselage in our back yard ,that was used for everything,Storage.building materials, chicken coop . I'll see if I can find the photos
Semper Fi
Joe
Old 04-01-2021, 01:51 PM
  #19582  
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What must also be remembered is that many of the gliders were destroyed in landing accidents during the night of June 5th. Many of the soldiers were killed or injured during the landings that were being taken to areas inland of the beaches due to the flight crews not being able to see anything on the ground. IIRC, the German glider borne troops landed during the daylight hours so they didn't suffer the casualties of the Allies for that reason but the lightly armed Germans were, as stated above, decimated by the defending troops and never used again in any operation as airborne troops
Old 04-02-2021, 12:31 PM
  #19583  
Ernie P.
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Originally Posted by uncljoe View Post
I don't have a question ,so someone else can fire away .I can recall my father using the plywood from gliders after the war , we had one or should say the fuselage in our back yard ,that was used for everything,Storage.building materials, chicken coop . I'll see if I can find the photos
Semper Fi
Joe
Sir; please reconsider posting the next question. It really isn't that hard to find a suitable subject. In fact, if you'll PM me, I will be happy to give you a subject aircraft. And running the quiz may require some time, but it's minimal. We need more people asking the questions and managing the quizzes. All you have to do is respond to guesses and post at least one new clue per day. Thanks; Ernie P.
Old 04-04-2021, 12:05 PM
  #19584  
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Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it

Last edited by uncljoe; 04-04-2021 at 12:20 PM.
Old 04-04-2021, 04:22 PM
  #19585  
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Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
Out turn its main adversary

Old 04-05-2021, 08:02 AM
  #19586  
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Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
Out turn its main adversary

crew of two
Old 04-05-2021, 02:59 PM
  #19587  
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Douglas SBD Dauntless
Old 04-05-2021, 03:15 PM
  #19588  
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no not the SBD
1.Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
2.Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
3.Out turn its main adversary

4.crew of two
5.Downed more aircraft than other Naval aircraft (for its time)

Last edited by uncljoe; 04-05-2021 at 06:41 PM.
Old 04-06-2021, 06:57 PM
  #19589  
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Originally Posted by uncljoe View Post
no not the SBD
1.Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
2.Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
3.Out turn its main adversary

4.crew of two
5.Downed more aircraft than other Naval aircraft (for its time)
Uncljoe; great subject and one I don't think has been highlighted before. Good job! Thanks; Ernie P.
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Old 04-06-2021, 11:01 PM
  #19590  
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I'm thinking F-4 Phantom, doubt it would be that simple.
Option two would have been the F-14, again, can't be that simple
Old 04-07-2021, 09:12 AM
  #19591  
uncljoe
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Hydro Junkie No on both of those


Originally Posted by uncljoe View Post
no not the SBD
1.Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
2.Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
3.Out turn its main adversary

4.crew of two
5.Downed more aircraft than other Naval aircraft (for its time)

6.First downing of a A/C with Radar without visual contact
Old 04-07-2021, 04:02 PM
  #19592  
uncljoe
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Hydro Junkie No on both of those


Originally Posted by uncljoe View Post
no not the SBD
1.Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
2.Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
3.Out turn its main adversary

4.crew of two
5.Downed more aircraft than other Naval aircraft (for its time)

6.First downing of a A/C with Radar without visual contact
Bonus ... Carried 4 20mm cannons
Old 04-07-2021, 07:30 PM
  #19593  
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Originally Posted by uncljoe View Post
Hydro Junkie No on both of those


Originally Posted by uncljoe View Post
no not the SBD
1.Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
2.Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
3.Out turn its main adversary

4.crew of two
5.Downed more aircraft than other Naval aircraft (for its time)

6.First downing of a A/C with Radar without visual contact
Bonus ... Carried 4 20mm cannons
Uncljoe; you have a PM. Thanks; Ernie P.
Old 04-07-2021, 07:51 PM
  #19594  
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Hydro Junkie No on both of those


Originally Posted by uncljoeView Post
no not the SBD
1.Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
2.Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
3.Out turn its main adversary

4.crew of two
5.Downed more aircraft than other Naval aircraft (for its time)

6.First downing of a A/C with Radar without visual contact
Bonus ... Carried 4 20mm cannons
7. Started out with US Navy painted on the fuselage, ended up with Army and had a with a unique escape system
Old 04-10-2021, 05:08 PM
  #19595  
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Hydro Junkie No on both of those


Originally Posted by uncljoeView Post
no not the SBD
1.Aircraft I seek is one that served in two wars
2.Ed Heinemann Had something to do with it
3.Out turn its main adversary

4.crew of two
5.Downed more aircraft than other Naval aircraft (for its time)

6.First downing of a A/C with Radar without visual contact
Bonus ... Carried 4 20mm cannons
7. Started out with US Navy painted on the fuselage, ended up with Army and had a with a unique escape system
8. Was the First "Wille the Whale" and some even called it a DRUT Spell it backwards.
Old 04-11-2021, 07:58 AM
  #19596  
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Douglas F3D Skyknight

Old 04-11-2021, 08:09 AM
  #19597  
uncljoe
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We have a Winner !

Design and development[edit]

The F3D was not intended to be a typical sleek and nimble dogfighter, but as a standoff night fighter, packing a powerful radar system and a second crew member. It originated in 1945 with a US Navy requirement for a jet-powered, radar-equipped, carrier-based night fighter. The Douglas team led by Ed Heinemann designed around the bulky air intercept radar systems of the time, with side-by-side seating for the pilot and radar operator.[6] The result was an aircraft with a wide, deep, and roomy fuselage. Instead of ejection seats, an escape tunnel was used, similar to the type used in the Douglas A-3 Skywarrior.[6]
The XF3D-1 beat out Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation's G-75 two-seat, four-engined, Westinghouse J30-powered night fighter design (similar layout to their Tigercat), and a contract was issued on 3 April 1946. The US Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) also issued a contract to Grumman for two G-75 (BuAer designation XF9F-1) experimental aircraft on 11 April 1946 in case the Skyknight ran into problems. Grumman soon realized that the G-75 was a losing design but had been working on a completely different, single-engined day fighter known as the Grumman G-79 which became the Grumman F9F Panther.[7][N 1]
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Maintenance on an APQ-35 radar of an F3D-2 in Korea, 1953
The first flight of the XF3D-1 was on 23 March 1948 at Douglas' El Segundo facility with test pilot Russell Thaw at the controls.[N 2] Further flight testing followed at El Segundo until October 1948. Three prototypes were then taken to Muroc Air Force Base (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) for service trials. These units were powered by two Westinghouse J34-WE-24 turbojets of 3,000 lbf (1,361 kgf) thrust, mounted under the roots of then-standard straight wings of the early jet era. A production contract for 28 F3D-1 J34-WE-32 powered production aircraft was issued in June 1948 with the first production aircraft flying on 13 February 1950.[11]
As a night fighter that was not expected to be as fast as smaller daylight fighters, the expectation was to have a stable platform for its radar system and the four 20 mm cannon mounted in the lower fuselage. The F3D was, however, able to outturn a MiG-15.[12] The fire control system in the F3D-1 was the Westinghouse AN/APQ-35. The AN/APQ-35 was advanced for the time, a combination of three different radars, each performing separate functions: an AN/APS-21 search radar, an AN/APG-26 tracking radar, both located in the nose, and an AN/APS-28 tail warning radar.[13] The complexity of this vacuum tube-based radar system, which was produced before the advent of semiconductor electronics, required intensive maintenance to keep it operating properly.
The F3D-1 was followed by the F3D-2, which was first ordered in August 1949. The F3D-2 was intended to have Westinghouse J46engines in enlarged nacelles to replace the J34-WE-32 engines of the F3D-1, but because of development problems with the J46, the F3D-2 was initially fitted with J34-WE-36 engines instead. Higher-thrust J34-WE-38 engines which increased aircraft performance were installed later.[11] The F3D-2 also incorporated an improved Westinghouse AN/APQ-36 fire control system. A total of 237 F3D-2s were built before production ended on 23 March 1952. A higher performance F3D-3 version with swept wings and J46 engines was planned, but was cancelled when the trouble-plagued J46 engine program was terminated.

Operational history[edit]

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F3D-2s of VMFN-513 at Kunsan Air Base, Korea, in 1953

Korean War[edit]

The 28 F3D-1 aircraft were used primarily to train F3D crews and did not see combat in the Korean War. The F3D-2 Skyknight was only deployed to Korea by USMC land–based squadrons, beginning in September 1952.[14] The Skyknight downed more enemy aircraft in Korea than any other single type of naval aircraft.[15] The first air-to-air victory occurred on the night of 2 November 1952 in a USMC F3D-2 piloted by Major William T. Stratton Jr., and his radar operator, Master Sergeant Hans C. Hoglind of VMF(N)-513 Flying Nightmares,[16] Major Stratton shot down what he believed was a Yakovlev Yak-15 (even though no Yak-15s were reported in Korea)[5] which was the first successful night radar interception by a jet of a jet.[17] The Skyknight claimed its first MiG-15 jet fighter on 8 November 1952, when Captain O.R. Davis and Warrant Officer D.F. "Ding" Fessler downed a MiG-15 northwest of Pyongyang.[17] USMC pilot Lt. Joseph Corvi and his radar operator Sergeant Dan George set another record with the Skyknight on the night of 10 December 1952, when they downed the first aircraft by an aircraft with a radar track and lock-on and without visual contact; they performed the feat by using their radar to lock onto a Polikarpov Po-2 biplane. They were also credited with another probable kill that night.[18]
The number of USMC Skyknights in Korea was doubled in January 1953 to 24 which allowed them to effectively escort B-29 Superfortresses on night bombing missions.[19] On 12 January 1953, an F3D-2 of VMF(N)-513 that was escorting B-29s on a night bombing mission was vectored to a contact and shot down the fourth aircraft by a Skyknight.[12] By the end of the war, Skyknights had claimed six enemy aircraft (one Polikarpov Po-2, one Yakovlev Yak-15 and four MiG-15s).[16] One aircraft was lost to enemy fire, which was piloted by LTJG Bob Bick and his crewman, Chief Petty Officer Linton Smith, on 2 July 1953. This aircraft was with a detachment from Fleet Composite Squadron FOUR (VC-4) at NAS Atlantic City, and was attached to Marine Fighter Squadron 513 (VMF(N)-513).[20] While the Skyknight lacked the swept wings and high subsonic performance of the MiG-15, its powerful fire control system enabled it to find and shoot down other fighters at night, while most MiG-15s could only be guided by ground-based radar.

Post Korean War[edit]

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F3D–1 Skyknight carrying AAM-N-2 Sparrow I missiles during tests in the early 1950s
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F3D–1 Skyknight firing a AAM-N-2 Sparrow I missile during a test in 1950
After the Korean War, the F3D was gradually replaced by more powerful aircraft with better radar systems. Its career was not over though; its stability and spacious fuselage made it easily adaptable to other roles. The F3D (under the designations F3D-1M and F3D-2M) was used to support development of a number of air-to-air missile systems during the 1950s, including the Sparrow I, II, and III and Meteor missiles.[21] The Sparrow missile was developed at Pacific Missile Test Center and early test firings were conducted at Naval Ordnance Test Station China Lake.
In 1954, the F3D-2M was the first Navy jet aircraft to be fitted with an operational air-to-air missile: the Sparrow I,[22] an all weather day/night BVR missile that used beam riding guidance for the aircrew to control the missile's track. Only 28 aircraft (12 F3D-1Ms,[23] and 16 F3D-2Ms[24]) were modified to use the missiles.
In the late 1950s, a number of the Marine F3D-2 aircraft were re-configured as electronic warfare aircraft and were designated F3D-2Q (later EF-10B). A few aircraft were also converted for use as trainers and were designated F3D-2T. Some of these aircraft were fitted with a single 10" aerial reconnaissance photography camera, which was mounted in the tail section.[citation needed]
In 1959, Ed Heinemann proposed that Douglas refurbish retired F3Ds for civil use, envisioning that former military aircraft could be offered at a much lower price than newly designed business jetssuch as Lockheed JetStar; however, the project was canceled due to the generally poor condition of aircraft then in storage.[25]
When the U.S. Navy issued a requirement for a fleet defense missile fighter in 1959, Douglas responded with the F6D Missileer, essentially an updated and enlarged F3D that would carry the AAM-N-10 Eagle long-range air-to-air missile, with the most important characteristics being its generous fuel capacity, its considerable time-on-station, a crew of two and sophisticated electronics, rather than speed or maneuverability. This concept which kept the straight wings in an age of supersonic jets was soon cancelled because it would not be able to defend itself against more nimble fighters.[26][27]The supersonic General Dynamics-Grumman F-111B was subsequently developed to carry long-range missiles, only to be cancelled due to excessive weight and changing tactical requirements; the Grumman F-14 Tomcat would later enter service in this role.
Skyknights continued in service through the 1960s in a gull white color scheme, when their contemporaries had long since been retired. In 1962, when the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force unified their designation systems, the F3D-1 was redesignated F-10A and the F3D-2 was re-designated F-10B.

Vietnam War[edit]

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EF-10B Skyknight of VMCJ-1
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ID:	2270175
EF-10B (BuNo 127041) of VMCJ-1 over Vietnam in 1966. This aircraft was downed by an SA-2 missile from the North Vietnamese 61st Battalion, 236th Missile Regiment over Nghe An province on 18 March 1966 (coordinates 191958N 1050959E). The crew, 1stLt Brent Davis and 1stLt Everett McPherson, were killed.
The Skyknight was the only Korean War jet fighter that also flew in Vietnam. EF-10Bs served in the Electronic warfare role during the Vietnam War until 1969. The large interior provided ample room for electronic equipment. U.S. Marine Composite Reconnaissance Squadron One VMCJ-1 Golden Hawks began operating the EF-10B on 17 April 1965 under Lt. Col Wes Corman at Da Nang Air Base Republic of Vietnam with six aircraft.[28] No more than 10 EF-10Bs were in Vietnam at one time. The Electronic Warfare (EW) Skyknight was a valuable Electronic countermeasure (ECM) asset to jam the SA-2 surface-to-air missiles (SAM) tracking and guidance systems.[5] VMCJ-1 made history when its EF-10Bs conducted the first USMC airborne radar jamming mission on 29 April 1965 to support a USAF strike mission. Four EF-10Bs also supported a massive strike on the SAM sites near Hanoi on 27 July 1965.
Many U.S. aircraft were lost to SA-2s in Vietnam and the electronic attack on the associated radar systems was known as "Fogbound" missions. The F3D also dropped chaff over the radar sites.[5]The first EF-10B lost in Vietnam was to an SA-2 on 18 March 1966, while four more EF-10Bs were lost in Vietnam to accidents and unknown causes.[28] Their mission was gradually taken over by the more capable EA-6A "Electric Intruder", an Electronic Warfare/Electronic Countermeasures (EW/ECM) variant of the Grumman A-6 Intruder attack bomber.[29] The EF-10B Skyknight continued to fly lower–threat EW missions until they were withdrawn from South Vietnam in October 1969.[28] The U.S. Navy's EKA-3 Skywarrior and the USAF's Douglas RB-66 Destroyeralso took on EW missions.
The U.S. Marine Corps retired its last EF-10Bs in May 1970.

Post Vietnam[edit]

The U.S. Navy continued to use the F-10s for avionics systems testing. The F-10 was used as a radar testbed to develop the APQ-72 radar. The nose of an F-4 Phantom was added to the front of an F-10B. Another F-10 had a modified radome installed by the radar manufacturer Westinghouse. Yet another TF-10B was modified with the nose from an A-4 Skyhawk.[30] In 1968, three Skyknights were transferred to the U.S. Army. These aircraft were operated by the Raytheon Corporation at Holloman AFB where they were used testing at the White Sands Missile Range into the 1980s; they were the last flyable Skyknights.[31]

Variants[edit]

XF3D-1Prototype aircraft, two Westinghouse J34-WE-24 turbojet engines of 3,000 lbf (1,361 kgf), APQ-35 search and target acquisition radar, four 20mm cannon, three built.[11]F3D-1Two-seat all-weather day or night-fighter aircraft, powered by two 3,000 lbf Westinghouse J34-WE-32 turbojet engines, tail warning radar, ECM, and other electronics that added over 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) of weight, 28 built. First flight: 13 February 1950.[11]F3D-1M12 F3D-1s were converted into missile-armed test aircraft, used in the development of the AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile.F3D-2Second Production version, initially powered by two 3,400 lbf (1,542 kgf) Westinghouse J34-WE-36 and later by two 3,600 lbf (16 kN) Westinghouse J34-WE-38 turbojet engines, 490 kn (560 mph; 910 km/h) @ 20,000 ft (6,100 m), equipped with wing spoilers, autopilot and an improved Westinghouse AN/APQ-36 radar, 237 built. First flight: 14 February 1951.[5][11]F3D-2BOne F3D-1 was used for special armament test in 1952.F3D-2M16 F3D-2s were converted into missile armed aircraft. The F3D-2Ms were armed with AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles.F3D-2Q35 F3D-2s were converted into electronic warfare aircraft.F3D-2TFive F3D-2s were converted into night fighter training aircraft.F3D-2T255 F3D-2s were used as radar-operator trainers and electronic warfare aircraft.F3D-3Unbuilt project, intended to be an advanced version incorporating swept wings.F-10A1962 re-designation of the F3D-1.F-10B1962 re-designation of the F3D-2.EF-10B1962 re-designation of the F3D-2Q.MF-10A1962 re-designation of the F3D-1M.MF-10B1962 re-designation of the F3D-2M.TF-10B1962 re-designation of the F3D-2T2.

Operators[edit]

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Aircraft on display[edit]

F3D-2
Old 04-11-2021, 09:34 AM
  #19598  
Ernie P.
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Originally Posted by LaRebel24 View Post

Douglas F3D Skyknight

Sir; congratulations and you are now up. Please post your question for us in the next day or so, and post at least one new clue per day. Nice to have you on board! Thanks; Ernie P.
Old 04-11-2021, 09:35 AM
  #19599  
Ernie P.
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Originally Posted by uncljoe View Post
We have a Winner !

Design and development[edit]

The F3D was not intended to be a typical sleek and nimble dogfighter, but as a standoff night fighter, packing a powerful radar system and a second crew member. It originated in 1945 with a US Navy requirement for a jet-powered, radar-equipped, carrier-based night fighter. The Douglas team led by Ed Heinemann designed around the bulky air intercept radar systems of the time, with side-by-side seating for the pilot and radar operator.[6] The result was an aircraft with a wide, deep, and roomy fuselage. Instead of ejection seats, an escape tunnel was used, similar to the type used in the Douglas A-3 Skywarrior.[6]
The XF3D-1 beat out Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation's G-75 two-seat, four-engined, Westinghouse J30-powered night fighter design (similar layout to their Tigercat), and a contract was issued on 3 April 1946. The US Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) also issued a contract to Grumman for two G-75 (BuAer designation XF9F-1) experimental aircraft on 11 April 1946 in case the Skyknight ran into problems. Grumman soon realized that the G-75 was a losing design but had been working on a completely different, single-engined day fighter known as the Grumman G-79 which became the Grumman F9F Panther.[7][N 1]
Attachment 2270170
Maintenance on an APQ-35 radar of an F3D-2 in Korea, 1953
The first flight of the XF3D-1 was on 23 March 1948 at Douglas' El Segundo facility with test pilot Russell Thaw at the controls.[N 2] Further flight testing followed at El Segundo until October 1948. Three prototypes were then taken to Muroc Air Force Base (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) for service trials. These units were powered by two Westinghouse J34-WE-24 turbojets of 3,000 lbf (1,361 kgf) thrust, mounted under the roots of then-standard straight wings of the early jet era. A production contract for 28 F3D-1 J34-WE-32 powered production aircraft was issued in June 1948 with the first production aircraft flying on 13 February 1950.[11]
As a night fighter that was not expected to be as fast as smaller daylight fighters, the expectation was to have a stable platform for its radar system and the four 20 mm cannon mounted in the lower fuselage. The F3D was, however, able to outturn a MiG-15.[12] The fire control system in the F3D-1 was the Westinghouse AN/APQ-35. The AN/APQ-35 was advanced for the time, a combination of three different radars, each performing separate functions: an AN/APS-21 search radar, an AN/APG-26 tracking radar, both located in the nose, and an AN/APS-28 tail warning radar.[13] The complexity of this vacuum tube-based radar system, which was produced before the advent of semiconductor electronics, required intensive maintenance to keep it operating properly.
The F3D-1 was followed by the F3D-2, which was first ordered in August 1949. The F3D-2 was intended to have Westinghouse J46engines in enlarged nacelles to replace the J34-WE-32 engines of the F3D-1, but because of development problems with the J46, the F3D-2 was initially fitted with J34-WE-36 engines instead. Higher-thrust J34-WE-38 engines which increased aircraft performance were installed later.[11] The F3D-2 also incorporated an improved Westinghouse AN/APQ-36 fire control system. A total of 237 F3D-2s were built before production ended on 23 March 1952. A higher performance F3D-3 version with swept wings and J46 engines was planned, but was cancelled when the trouble-plagued J46 engine program was terminated.

Operational history[edit]

Attachment 2270171
F3D-2s of VMFN-513 at Kunsan Air Base, Korea, in 1953

Korean War[edit]

The 28 F3D-1 aircraft were used primarily to train F3D crews and did not see combat in the Korean War. The F3D-2 Skyknight was only deployed to Korea by USMC landbased squadrons, beginning in September 1952.[14] The Skyknight downed more enemy aircraft in Korea than any other single type of naval aircraft.[15] The first air-to-air victory occurred on the night of 2 November 1952 in a USMC F3D-2 piloted by Major William T. Stratton Jr., and his radar operator, Master Sergeant Hans C. Hoglind of VMF(N)-513 Flying Nightmares,[16] Major Stratton shot down what he believed was a Yakovlev Yak-15 (even though no Yak-15s were reported in Korea)[5] which was the first successful night radar interception by a jet of a jet.[17] The Skyknight claimed its first MiG-15 jet fighter on 8 November 1952, when Captain O.R. Davis and Warrant Officer D.F. "Ding" Fessler downed a MiG-15 northwest of Pyongyang.[17] USMC pilot Lt. Joseph Corvi and his radar operator Sergeant Dan George set another record with the Skyknight on the night of 10 December 1952, when they downed the first aircraft by an aircraft with a radar track and lock-on and without visual contact; they performed the feat by using their radar to lock onto a Polikarpov Po-2 biplane. They were also credited with another probable kill that night.[18]
The number of USMC Skyknights in Korea was doubled in January 1953 to 24 which allowed them to effectively escort B-29 Superfortresses on night bombing missions.[19] On 12 January 1953, an F3D-2 of VMF(N)-513 that was escorting B-29s on a night bombing mission was vectored to a contact and shot down the fourth aircraft by a Skyknight.[12] By the end of the war, Skyknights had claimed six enemy aircraft (one Polikarpov Po-2, one Yakovlev Yak-15 and four MiG-15s).[16] One aircraft was lost to enemy fire, which was piloted by LTJG Bob Bick and his crewman, Chief Petty Officer Linton Smith, on 2 July 1953. This aircraft was with a detachment from Fleet Composite Squadron FOUR (VC-4) at NAS Atlantic City, and was attached to Marine Fighter Squadron 513 (VMF(N)-513).[20] While the Skyknight lacked the swept wings and high subsonic performance of the MiG-15, its powerful fire control system enabled it to find and shoot down other fighters at night, while most MiG-15s could only be guided by ground-based radar.

Post Korean War[edit]

Attachment 2270172
F3D1 Skyknight carrying AAM-N-2 Sparrow I missiles during tests in the early 1950s
Attachment 2270173
F3D1 Skyknight firing a AAM-N-2 Sparrow I missile during a test in 1950
After the Korean War, the F3D was gradually replaced by more powerful aircraft with better radar systems. Its career was not over though; its stability and spacious fuselage made it easily adaptable to other roles. The F3D (under the designations F3D-1M and F3D-2M) was used to support development of a number of air-to-air missile systems during the 1950s, including the Sparrow I, II, and III and Meteor missiles.[21] The Sparrow missile was developed at Pacific Missile Test Center and early test firings were conducted at Naval Ordnance Test Station China Lake.
In 1954, the F3D-2M was the first Navy jet aircraft to be fitted with an operational air-to-air missile: the Sparrow I,[22] an all weather day/night BVR missile that used beam riding guidance for the aircrew to control the missile's track. Only 28 aircraft (12 F3D-1Ms,[23] and 16 F3D-2Ms[24]) were modified to use the missiles.
In the late 1950s, a number of the Marine F3D-2 aircraft were re-configured as electronic warfare aircraft and were designated F3D-2Q (later EF-10B). A few aircraft were also converted for use as trainers and were designated F3D-2T. Some of these aircraft were fitted with a single 10" aerial reconnaissance photography camera, which was mounted in the tail section.[[i]citation needed]
In 1959, Ed Heinemann proposed that Douglas refurbish retired F3Ds for civil use, envisioning that former military aircraft could be offered at a much lower price than newly designed business jetssuch as Lockheed JetStar; however, the project was canceled due to the generally poor condition of aircraft then in storage.[25]
When the U.S. Navy issued a requirement for a fleet defense missile fighter in 1959, Douglas responded with the F6D Missileer, essentially an updated and enlarged F3D that would carry the AAM-N-10 Eagle long-range air-to-air missile, with the most important characteristics being its generous fuel capacity, its considerable time-on-station, a crew of two and sophisticated electronics, rather than speed or maneuverability. This concept which kept the straight wings in an age of supersonic jets was soon cancelled because it would not be able to defend itself against more nimble fighters.[26][27]The supersonic General Dynamics-Grumman F-111B was subsequently developed to carry long-range missiles, only to be cancelled due to excessive weight and changing tactical requirements; the Grumman F-14 Tomcat would later enter service in this role.
Skyknights continued in service through the 1960s in a gull white color scheme, when their contemporaries had long since been retired. In 1962, when the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force unified their designation systems, the F3D-1 was redesignated F-10A and the F3D-2 was re-designated F-10B.

Vietnam War[edit]

Attachment 2270174
EF-10B Skyknight of VMCJ-1
Attachment 2270175
EF-10B (BuNo 127041) of VMCJ-1 over Vietnam in 1966. This aircraft was downed by an SA-2 missile from the North Vietnamese 61st Battalion, 236th Missile Regiment over Nghe An province on 18 March 1966 (coordinates 191958N 1050959E). The crew, 1stLt Brent Davis and 1stLt Everett McPherson, were killed.
The Skyknight was the only Korean War jet fighter that also flew in Vietnam. EF-10Bs served in the Electronic warfare role during the Vietnam War until 1969. The large interior provided ample room for electronic equipment. U.S. Marine Composite Reconnaissance Squadron One VMCJ-1 Golden Hawks began operating the EF-10B on 17 April 1965 under Lt. Col Wes Corman at Da Nang Air Base Republic of Vietnam with six aircraft.[28] No more than 10 EF-10Bs were in Vietnam at one time. The Electronic Warfare (EW) Skyknight was a valuable Electronic countermeasure (ECM) asset to jam the SA-2 surface-to-air missiles (SAM) tracking and guidance systems.[5] VMCJ-1 made history when its EF-10Bs conducted the first USMC airborne radar jamming mission on 29 April 1965 to support a USAF strike mission. Four EF-10Bs also supported a massive strike on the SAM sites near Hanoi on 27 July 1965.
Many U.S. aircraft were lost to SA-2s in Vietnam and the electronic attack on the associated radar systems was known as "Fogbound" missions. The F3D also dropped chaff over the radar sites.[5]The first EF-10B lost in Vietnam was to an SA-2 on 18 March 1966, while four more EF-10Bs were lost in Vietnam to accidents and unknown causes.[28] Their mission was gradually taken over by the more capable EA-6A "Electric Intruder", an Electronic Warfare/Electronic Countermeasures (EW/ECM) variant of the Grumman A-6 Intruder attack bomber.[29] The EF-10B Skyknight continued to fly lowerthreat EW missions until they were withdrawn from South Vietnam in October 1969.[28] The U.S. Navy's EKA-3 Skywarrior and the USAF's Douglas RB-66 Destroyeralso took on EW missions.
The U.S. Marine Corps retired its last EF-10Bs in May 1970.

Post Vietnam[edit]

The U.S. Navy continued to use the F-10s for avionics systems testing. The F-10 was used as a radar testbed to develop the APQ-72 radar. The nose of an F-4 Phantom was added to the front of an F-10B. Another F-10 had a modified radome installed by the radar manufacturer Westinghouse. Yet another TF-10B was modified with the nose from an A-4 Skyhawk.[30] In 1968, three Skyknights were transferred to the U.S. Army. These aircraft were operated by the Raytheon Corporation at Holloman AFB where they were used testing at the White Sands Missile Range into the 1980s; they were the last flyable Skyknights.[31]

Variants[edit]

XF3D-1Prototype aircraft, two Westinghouse J34-WE-24 turbojet engines of 3,000 lbf (1,361 kgf), APQ-35 search and target acquisition radar, four 20mm cannon, three built.[11]F3D-1Two-seat all-weather day or night-fighter aircraft, powered by two 3,000 lbf Westinghouse J34-WE-32 turbojet engines, tail warning radar, ECM, and other electronics that added over 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) of weight, 28 built. First flight: 13 February 1950.[11]F3D-1M12 F3D-1s were converted into missile-armed test aircraft, used in the development of the AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile.F3D-2Second Production version, initially powered by two 3,400 lbf (1,542 kgf) Westinghouse J34-WE-36 and later by two 3,600 lbf (16 kN) Westinghouse J34-WE-38 turbojet engines, 490 kn (560 mph; 910 km/h) @ 20,000 ft (6,100 m), equipped with wing spoilers, autopilot and an improved Westinghouse AN/APQ-36 radar, 237 built. First flight: 14 February 1951.[5][11]F3D-2BOne F3D-1 was used for special armament test in 1952.F3D-2M16 F3D-2s were converted into missile armed aircraft. The F3D-2Ms were armed with AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles.F3D-2Q35 F3D-2s were converted into electronic warfare aircraft.F3D-2TFive F3D-2s were converted into night fighter training aircraft.F3D-2T255 F3D-2s were used as radar-operator trainers and electronic warfare aircraft.F3D-3Unbuilt project, intended to be an advanced version incorporating swept wings.F-10A1962 re-designation of the F3D-1.F-10B1962 re-designation of the F3D-2.EF-10B1962 re-designation of the F3D-2Q.MF-10A1962 re-designation of the F3D-1M.MF-10B1962 re-designation of the F3D-2M.TF-10B1962 re-designation of the F3D-2T2.

Operators[edit]

Attachment 2270176 United States

Aircraft on display[edit]

F3D-2
Thanks, Uncljoe; nice subject and well run. Thanks; Ernie P.
Old 04-11-2021, 09:51 PM
  #19600  
LaRebel24
 
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Ok guys please bear with me as I am new to all this, but here we go.

What aircraft do I seek?
1. Aircraft was developed in the late 1930's and first flew in 1940.
2. Crew of two.
3. Was briefly regarded as the first successful aircraft of this type, but in reality was actually the second.
4. Was the first aircraft of this type to log a cross country flight

Last edited by LaRebel24; 04-12-2021 at 07:09 PM.

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